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## (W) Key Stage 2

# Key Stage 2

Skills

1. Solve mathematical problems

Pupils should be given opportunities to:

- select and use the appropriate mathematics, materials, units of measure and resources to solve problems in a variety of contexts
- identify, obtain and process information needed to carry out the work
- develop their own mathematical strategies and ideas and consider those of others
- try different approaches; use a variety of strategies, sequences of operation and methods of calculating
- use their prior knowledge to find mathematical facts that they have not learned, and to solve numerical problems
- use flexible and effective methods of computation and recording
- estimate solutions to calculations; use alternative strategies to check the accuracy of answers
- appreciate the continuous nature of measures, and that measurement is approximate; estimate measures, and measure to an appropriate degree of accuracy in a range of contexts.

### 2. Communicate mathematically

Pupils should be given opportunities to:

- use correct mathematical language, notation, symbols and conventions to talk about or to represent their work to others
- recognise, and generalise in words, patterns that arise in numerical, spatial or practical situations
- visualise and describe shapes, movements and transformations
- read information from charts, diagrams, graphs and texts
- use a variety of methods to represent data devise and refine their own ways of recording
- explain strategies, methods, choices and conclusions to others in a variety of ways -verbally, graphically, using informal written methods.

### 3. Reason mathematically

#### Pupils should be given opportunities to:

- develop a variety of mental and written strategies of computation
- check results and interpret solutions to calculations, including calculator displays; check against the context of the problem that solutions are reasonable
- develop early ideas of algebra and mathematical structure by exploring number sequences and relationships; explain and predict subsequent terms
- investigate and generalise repeating patterns and relationships; search for pattern in their own results
- present and interpret a wide range of graphs and diagrams that represent data; draw conclusions from this data; recognise that some conclusions can be uncertain or misleading
- make and investigate mathematical hypotheses, predictions and conjectures.

Range

Pupils develop their mathematical skills, knowledge and understanding through learning about and using Number, Measures and money, Shape, position and movement, and Handling data. They should use a variety of ICT resources as tools whenever appropriate.

1. Number

Pupils should be given opportunities to:

a.Understand number and number notation:

- count, read, write and order whole numbers
- understand place value in relation to the position of digits; multiply and divide numbers by 10 and 100
- identify negative numbers and decimals on a number line
- use negative numbers in the context of temperature, and decimals in the context of money and measures

**b.Calculate in a variety of ways:**

- use a variety of mental methods of computation; extend informal written methods to non-calculator methods
- round answers to calculations to an appropriate degree of accuracy
- use the relationships between the four operations, including inverses; recognise situations to which the different operations apply
- use fractions and percentages to estimate, describe and compare proportions of a whole; calculate fractions and percentages of quantities

**c.Investigate patterns and relationships**

- explore features of numbers, including number bonds, factors, multiples, even and odd numbers, primes, squares and square roots, and sequences of whole numbers
- explore the inverse relationships of addition and subtraction, and of multiplication and division
- deepen their understanding of one-to-one correspondence.

2. Measures and money

Pupils should be given opportunities to:

a.Understand and use measures

- choose appropriate standard units of length, mass, volume and capacity, temperature, area and time
- understand the relationships between units, and convert one metric unit to another
- read times on analogue and digital clocks; use timetables and convert between the 12- and 24-hour clocks; calculate time differences
- know the rough metric equivalents of imperial units still in daily use
- interpret numbers on scales and read scales to an increasing degree of accuracy; understand and use scale in simple maps and drawings
- draw and measure angles
- find perimeters of simple shapes; find areas and volumes by counting and other practical methods

**b.Understand and use money**

- know and use the conventional way to record money
- find approximate solutions to, and use the four operations to solve, problems involving money
- understand a calculator display in relation to money, e.g. that a display of 21.4 (pounds) means £21.40
- be aware of other currencies.

3. Shape, position and movement

Pupils should be given opportunities to:

a.Understand and use the properties of shapes

- make 2-D and 3-D shapes and patterns with increasing accuracy
- understand the congruence of 2-D shapes
- name and classify 2-D shapes according to side and angle properties
- know and use the properties of 2-D (polygon) and common 3-D (polyhedron) Shapes

**b.Understand and use the properties of position and movement**

- recognise reflective and rotational symmetries of 2-D shapes
- use positive co-ordinates to specify location
- identify properties of position and movement, and use these to classify shapes
- use right angles, fractions of a turn and degrees to measure rotation.

4. Handling data

Pupils should be given opportunities to:

a.Collect, represent and interpret data

- collect data for a variety of defined purposes, including those that arise from their own questions, and from a variety of sources
- use and present data in a variety of ways including tables, pictograms, charts, bar
- charts, line graphs, diagrams, text and ICT
- calculate and use the mode, median, mean and range of a set of discrete data

**b.Understand and use probability**

- use everyday language for early ideas of probability
- know that the likelihood of an event lies between impossible and certain.